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Killing other Muslims

(from "Left Shoe News", !995-2002. Ezine of Human Rights Abuses in Islamic Countries Inc.)

Allah's Apostle never killed a Muslim except in one of the following three situations: (1) A person who killed another Muslim, was killed (in Qisas,) (2) a married person who committed illegal sexual intercourse and (3) a man who fought against Allah and His Apostle and deserted Islam and became an apostate." (Bukhari 1:9:37) [But see “Capital Punishment and Prophet Muhammad”]

However, the justification used by sectarian killers such as the Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is that Shia aren’t really Muslims. Similarly the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt said that President Sadat was a traitor to Islam.

"No Muslim should be killed for killing an infidel." (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 283: )

9 May, 2002 Islamists bomb bus
Dozens of people have been arrested in Pakistan's southern Sindh province in connection with a fatal bomb attack on a bus carrying foreign nationals in the provincial capital, Karachi. Investigators are examining the possible involvement of al-Qaeda in Wednesday's suspected suicide attack on the bus which killed 15 people, including 11 French workers. Three Pakistanis were also killed and more than 20 people were wounded in the blast.

7 May, 2002 Pakistan cleric gunned down
Gunmen in Pakistan have shot dead a well-known Islamic cleric, Ghulam Murtaza Malik, in a late-night attack in Lahore. Police said the attackers, on motorcycles, also killed Mr Malik's driver and a police constable who gave chase.
Ghulam Murtaza Malik was a Sunni scholar who lectured regularly on state-run Pakistani radio and television. Lahore police said they had no immediate clues who was responsible for the killing, but correspondents say sectarian clashes between Shi'ites and Sunni Muslims are common in Pakistan.

2 May, 2002 Islamist killings in Algeria.
The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) have killed 31 people in two separate massacres in the Tiaret region of western Algeria. Twenty people were killed and 5 wounded at Ksar-Chellala. Another 11 people were killed in Sidi Khaled, on the outskirts of the town of Tiaret.
Sixteen people, including 8 children and 4 women were killed last week during another attack in the region.

May 9, 2002 Islamists attack Dagestan Parade
Thirty six people were killed and 150 injured when Islamists set off a bomb, packed with metal fragments, by remote control on a Victory (WWII) Day Parade in Kaspiysk, Dagestan.
Among the dead were 13 children and 18 bandsmen. The children were predominantly Muslim but the area, bordering on Chechnya, does not want an Islamic state.

30/4/02   A 30 year-old divorcee, Amina Lawal, has been sentenced to be stoned to death in Katsina state, northern Nigeria. Some residents in her town of Funtua reported the case to the police when they discovered that Miss Lawal was pregnant.

and in Pakistan

Zafran Bibi has been sentenced to death by stoning for adultery by a Sharia court in Kohat, North-West Frontier province. We will bring you more news as it comes to hand.

24/4/02 Algerian Islamists kill farmers
GIA (Armed Islamic Group) rebels killed 16 people, including eight children near Tiaret on Tuesday night while they slept. On Sunday three shepherds in a nearby area were killed.
The GIA appointed a new national leader in March to replace Antar Zouabri, killed earlier by security forces. His successor, Rachid Abou Tourab, has pledged to step up action to bring about a radical Islamic state.

29/3/02 More than 100 Algerians have been killed so far this month by the GIA (Armed Islamic Group). Two people were killed when a GIA bomb went off in a crowded outdoor market at the village of Ouled Yaich near Blida.
8/3/02 Six people were killed and their taxi set on fire near El Affroun on Thursday.

13/2/02 Two die in Muslim riot in Tanzania

A civilian and a policeman died in riots today in Dar es Salaam when rival groups of Muslims held running battles around a mosque. The row was over a service to commemorate two Muslims who died in religious riots in 1998, which were sparked by the arrest of a popular Muslim leader for violating a law preaching to incite people against other religions.


13/1/02 Violent Islamic groups banned in Pakistan
President Pervez Musharraf says about 400 people were killed in sectarian religious violence last year. The Sunni Sipah-e-Sahaba (The Army of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad) and the Shi'a Tehrik-e-Jafria (The Movement of Followers of Shi'a) were involved and have been banned. The Sunni group, in particular, wants Shi'ism banned in Pakistan, and the right to kill them as non-Muslims.

28/1/01 GIA rebels cut the throats of 25 civilians, including 16 children and four women on Saturday night at El Guetaibia village, 220 km west of Algiers.
15/1/01 Seven people, including 4 children were knifed and shot at Hai El Kitab, 70 km south of the capital. At Laghouat four family members, including a 14 month-old baby were killed on Saturday.
17/1/01 On Tuesday armed Muslim rebels fired at two lorries and a car near Khemis Miliana, 120 km west of Algiers, killing 12 passengers. The rebels then set the vehicles alight. On Monday at the village of Tamesguida, south of Algiers, 5 teenagers playing dominoes in a café were shot dead.
19/1/01 23 shepherds and farmers were killed by GIA in a forest in Dahra region , 125 km west of the capital.
20/1/01 GIA gunmen broke into a home in Medea, 55 miles south of Algiers, and killed 11 family members including a 4 year-old child. A teenager was able to escape unharmed.
29/1/01 GIA broke into 2 homes in the hamlet of Oued Fares and killed 24 people as they slept, 16 of them children.
4/1/01 Eleven soldiers were killed in an ambush in the Batna region 435 km S of Algiers.
6/1/01 Algerian security forces killed 15 rebels near Tizi-Ouzou on Thursday.

22/1/01 Six killed in Bangladesh by Islamic anti-communists
Schools and stores closed in Dhaka Sunday during a general strike to protest the bombing of a leftist rally in Bangladesh which killed six people and injured 50. The death toll could rise as many of the 30 in hospital were in a critical condition.
17/1/01 The Bangladesh Legal Aid and Services Trust's annual report says that there is alarming violence against women in the country. Forty two women were killed after being raped; 209 were tortured because they had not brought enough dowry for their husbands and 100 died. At least 272 women and girls were seriously burned, blinded or maimed by acid thrown over them. Such attacks are usually carried out by men who have been spurned by the women. More than 300 women and girls were reported missing, abducted or forced into prostitution. Only half of them were rescued and returned home. Another 43 women were victims of fatwas issued by Islamic clerics, which too is illegal in Bangladesh. Details of their punishments were not released.


28/1/01 Religious violence rages in Pakistan
An ambush of the Karachi Sunni Wafaaq-ul Madris school bus killed three clerics, a teen-age student and the driver on Sunday. Three others including a policeman guarding the van were wounded. Angry protesters set fire to two cinemas and closed a road with burning cars and tires.
Separately, unidentified gunmen shot and killed a Sunni worshipper outside an eastern Karachi mosque. Elsewhere gunmen peppered a Shiite mosque with bullets wounding six people.
20/1/01 Prominent Iranian Shiite leader, Agha Sultani, was killed as he was leaving a Shiite mosque in central Karachi. The Sipah-e-Sahaba, SSP, Guardians of the Friends of the Prophet, have been blamed. This organization wants Shiism to be declared non-Muslim.
22/1/01 The Supreme Court in Lahore stayed the execution of Haq Nawaz after the SSP threatened non-peaceful demonstrations in the streets. Haq, and 7 others who escaped in a violent jailbreak several years ago, had been found guilty of the drive-by shooting of Iranian diplomat Sadiq Ganji in 1989.
30/1/01 Hundreds of Islamic protesters ransacked the offices and destroyed the press of the newspaper "Frontier Post" in Peshawar after it had published a letter considered derogatory to Prophet Muhammad. Seven staff members were charged with blasphemy, an offence punishable by death.
4/1/01 A battle with rockets and mortars between rival Sunni and Shiite Muslims in Kallay, 75 miles from Peshawar, has left 5 people dead. Among the dead was a 6 year-old child. The fighting was reportedly due to Sunnis refusing access to Shiites of a shrine revered by both sects.
16/1/01 Islamic group, Tanzeem-ul-Ikhwan, has given the government until March7 to make Pakistan an Islamic state based on Sharia, Islamic law. Tanzeen-ul-Ikhwan has 300,000 militant members.
8/1/01 Pakistan is reported to have developed a new missile that can be tipped with a nuclear warhead. The Haider-1 has a range of 2,500 kilometres and at a speed of 16.6 kilometres per second can reach many Indian cities within 3 minutes of launch.
27/1/01 Pakistan has put aside differences with India to offer relief aid for victims of the Gujarat earthquake. Some 12 people were killed by the quake in Pakistan itself.
4/1/01 Indian police have arrested three men in new Delhi over the attack on the Red Fort nearly two weeks ago. Pakistan-based militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba claimed responsibility for the attack.


23/1/01 Pakistanis killed helping Taliban
Brigadier Amjad of Pakistan's 996 Brigade and three other Pakistani soldiers were among the Taliban killed by the Mujahideen in Khwaja Ghar, Bamiyan Province, Afghanistan. Brigade 994 and units of the Kohat Division and Pakistan's 9th Division have been aiding the Taliban in Takhar province.
19/1/01 More than 100 Hazaras, a Shiite Muslim ethnic group, are reported to have been summarily executed when the Taliban retook Yakaolong, 130 miles NW of Kabul. The Taliban authorities have barred journalists from visiting the area.
24/1/01 The opposition claims to have uncovered three fresh mass graves in the Khojah Ghar district of Takhar province. The 70 bodies included those of women and children.

24/2/01 In the past week, five Shiite Muslims have been killed in separate incidents in eastern Punjab and Karachi. Police have arrested Azim Tariq, leader of Sipah-e-Sahaba (Guardians of the Friends of the Prophet) one of the most violent and well-armed religious groups.

3/2/01 A group of Bangladeshi Muslim activists dragged a policeman to a Dhaka mosque where he was lynched. Fifteen other people were wounded in riots protesting a ban on fatwas by Muslim clergy. The fatwas in this case involved women's rights, preventing them from mixing and working with men outside their families and allowing adulteresses to be tortured. Sixty demonstrators, mainly students from a madrasas (Muslim religious school) have been arrested and Moulana Mufti Amini, secretary-general of the group Islami Oikyo Jote Thousands of supporters of the ban, including villagers, veiled women and girls, marched, danced and sang in Dhaka. They were protected from Islamists by a huge police presence. Kabir Chowdhury, a retired professor of Dhaka University, said: "The people of Bangladesh will no longer tolerate fatwas given by (Muslim) fundamentalists to achieve their ulterior motives. They are out to retard progress and social justice." Death threats have been made against the 2 High Court judges who made the ban on fatwas and against mostly foreign-funded NGO's which they say are "agents of Satan" and "violate the spirit of Islam".
Bangladesh is one of the few relatively democratic Muslim countries in the world, with laws remaining from British colonial days.

11 Feb. '01 Thirteen children killed by GIA
GIA (Armed Islamic Group) fired on a shanty town in northern Algeria, killing at least 27 people, half of whom were children. The raid took place yesterday evening near Berrouaghia. The children were aged between 6 months and 18 years.
Violence in Algeria has claimed 100,000 lives since the insurgency began in 1992. Last month, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika threatened to fight militants "with an iron fist", but new deaths are reported on an almost daily basis.
17/2/01 Soldiers combing the woods near Sidi Bel-Abbes on Thursday were ambushed by about 100 GIA. Thirteen soldiers and 6 militants were killed. Two shepherds were killed and another abducted on Wednesday in the Mascara region. Also one person was killed and another kidnapped at a GIA roadblock near Thenia.

2/3/01 On Thursday a leading member of the Sunni militant group, Sepa-e-Sahaba , Haq Nawaz, was hanged for the murder of an Iranian (Shiite) diplomat 10 years ago. The next day 3 Shia shopkeepers were shot dead in the town of Hangu in the North-West Frontier province. In the ensuing gunbattle ten Sunni Muslims were killed. Several shops and cars were set alight.
4/3/01 Six Sunni gunmen on 3 motorcycles rampaged through Sheikhpura killing 2 policemen and 7 Shia. Police suspect Sipeh-e-Sahaba, Guardians of the Friends of the Prophet, which regards Shia as non-Muslims and wants Pakistan to be declared a Sunni Muslim state.

30/3/01 Armed Islamic Group killings in Algeria
A family of five including women and children has been killed in an attack in the Tipaza area. Fifteen people were killed in a massacre at the shanty-town of Hai Benachour. On Sunday a family of 13 was killed near Blida.
19/3/01 Islamic militants detonated an explosive and fired a mortar on cars near Thenia, killing two civilians and wounding 23. On Saturday evening two police officers were shot to death at Guelma. In nearby Annaba a homemade bomb killed a policeman.
19/3/01 The Algerian army killed 9 armed rebels on Wednesday in the Timexi forest and 13 rebels hiding in caves near Ouled Attia. Soldiers in the Collo region did not interrupt a clash between two opposing militant groups: when the fighting ended they found 20 decapitated bodies from both sides.
28/3/01 Abdelmajid Dahoumane, who is wanted by US authorities for helping prepare bombs to be used in Seattle, has been arrested in Algeria on his return from Afghanistan, where he had been undergoing training in arms and explosives.
There is no doubt the economic situation in Algeria feeds the discontent. While Algeria has rich gas and oil exports, the poor see little from it. Unemployment in the 20-25 year age group stands at 49 per cent, housing is scarce and prohibitively expensive , while monthly wages average around 8000 dinars, about $110.


29/4/01 Police Brutality in Algeria
The death in custody of an 18 year-old brought thousands of Berbers out on the streets in eastern Algeria. The police responded killing 4 unarmed civilians and the total after a week of demonstrations stands at 35 dead. The Berbers hold deep-seated complaints as well: they demand recognition of their language which is not related to Arabic. The Berbers were the original inhabitants of the area before the Arab Muslim invasion. The protests are not connected with the Islamic insurgency in the country.
7 April Rebels of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) slit the throats of 5 shepherds in the Ojebel Aouf area.
8 April More than 30 rebels were killed including 3 leaders in an offensive by security forces around Sidi Ali Bounab.
18/4/01 A sixteen year-old girl was hacked to death with an axe, her father seriously injured and her mother kidnapped by GIA at Berrouaghia. At a second house a man and his two children were killed.

14/4/01 Islamic Bomb Kills Nine in Bangladesh
A bomb exploded at an open-air concert at Ramna Park, Dhaka killing nine people and wounding 50. A second blast 45 minutes later wounded a policeman. The concert attended by 15,000 people was celebrating the Bengali New Year (non-Islamic). The bomb went off prematurely killing the man carrying it. An accomplice, a member of the Islamic student organization, Islami Chattra Shibir, was arrested. Two other bombs were abandoned in the park.
30/4/01 A Bangladeshi high court has sentenced to death 12 former military officers convicted of involvemernt in the 1975 assassination of the country's first president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Mujib, father of the current prime minister Sheikh Hasina, was killed along with his wife and 14 other family members when his house was attacked during an Islamic coup. Mujib led Bangladesh to independence from Pakistan and was a secular leader, even-handed towards Hindus and Christians. Sheikh Hasina's Awami League government cleared the way for the trial by amending the constitution after returning to power in 1996.

24/8/01 Islamist murders continue in Algeria
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has been blamed for the death of 17 travellers near Mohammedia, Algeria.
14/8/01 Another 17 farmers had their throats slashed at a false road-block near Ouled-Bouaja on Tuesday. On Saturday night nine people were killed - four sleeping people in one house and five, including four children in another cottage.
29/8/01 The GIA and the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat have infiltrated the capital and on Wednesday a bomb exploded in the Bab-el-Oued district, near the Casbah, injuring 34 people, five seriously.
The Islamic groups are fighting for a Sharia state where Allah reigns supreme. Over 100,000 Algerians have died since the uprising began in 1992.

17/12/00 A radical Sunni group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, claimed responsibility for the killing of three policemen in Lahore on Saturday. Killed was Tariq Khambo, Lahore's deputy superintendent, who was in charge of investigating religiously motivated killings in Lahore. Small but heavily armed rival Sunni and Shiite groups continually target each other's members and mosques. It is haram to kill a fellow-Muslim but they regard each other as non-Muslims.

24/12/00 Ramadan death toll in Algeria reaches 250
About 2 dozen armed men stormed a disco at Berrahal killing a singer, Sihem Echaouiga.
Fundamentalists particularly dislike pop and romantic songs. See "Music" from "Reform_Islam". Twenty one other people were killed over the weekend.
19/12/00 GIA (Armed Islamic Group) rebels used machine guns, hatchets and knives at Ouled Mahedine. The victims included a 3 year-old baby with his throat cut and body disembowelled.
18/12/00 Nearly 50 people were killed over the weekend, including 15 students and a teacher in an attack on a boarding school on Saturday night. On Sunday night 18 civilians were killed in an attack on a bus near Tenes. An hour later, 5 civilians including 3 women were shot dead by Islamic rebels at Khemis Miliana. Early Monday morning, they slit the throats of 8 villagers, including 2 infants at Sudi N'hil.
20/12/00 Six members of a civilian security force were shot dead on Tuesday at El-Hassi. Rebels slit the throat of a teacher at Jijel. Also on Tuesday a bomb exploded in a crowded market in Laghouap.
4/12/00 Three young people playing dominoes were killed at Berrouaghia. In two other attacks a shepherd and a farmer were killed.

23/12/00 Iran puts 17 on trial for killings of dissidents
Seventeen former agents of the Intelligence Ministry are being tried in a closed military court in Tehran and the media has been warned not to make any unauthorized statements. Earlier this month a lawyer for the victims' families was detained after he made a speech on the killings. The killings began Nov.22, 1998 with the stabbing of Dariush Forouhar and his wife Parvenah who ran a small opposition party. In December, writers Mohammed Jafar Pouyandeh and Mohammad Mokhtari disappeared and were later found strangled on the outskirts of Tehran.

10/12/00 About 30 members of a messianic Shiite Muslim group, The Mahdiavat, go on trial in the Revolutionary Court on Saturday. They are charged with the attempted assassination of the Tehran judiciary chief and the theft of weapons from Islamic militia depots in 4 mosques.

The Mahdaviat is preparing the way for the return of the Mahdi, the 12th Iman who went into hiding in the year 874.
The group was later linked to attempts to kill President Khatami and former president Rafsanjani.

November 2000
22/11/00 Ramadan Fears in Algeria
The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) is feared to step up its violence during the holy month of Ramadan. Hundreds of villagers are asking the authorities for arms with which to defend themselves .
On Monday night, rebels killed ten people, including children, near Bou Ismail in Tipaza province. Eight shepherds had their throats slit on Tuesday in the village of Dhamnia, in Chlef province. A hundred thousand Algerians, mainly civilians, have been killed since 1992 when GIA began its campaign.

Suharto must also be tried for his part in the 1965-66 killings of an estimated 500,000 "communists". Also for his 32 years where any opposition was met with murder, torture, disappearances, extra-judicial killings, suppression of trade unions and denial of a free press.

KASHMIR: WOMEN WITHOUT PURDAH UNDER THREAT OF FUNDAMENTALIST GUN-SQUADS


The command council of the Pakistan-based Islamic fundamentalist
Lakshar-e-Toiba (LeT) has issued a press statement to local papers in
Kashmir, in which they threaten to shoot women without warning in their
legs, if they leave their house without wearing purdah (veil).
Cable operators are warned to stop with immediate effect to forward BBC, the
Pakistan TV channel PTV and the National Geographic Channel. The 22,000
government employees, who have been recruited by the government for a census
operation in Kashmir, are threatened with execution if they try to do their
duty.
To put weight behind their threats, a gun-squad of the LeT attacked a
beauty parlor in Srinagar one day after issuing the statement. The owner and
two young employees of the parlor suffered bullet wounds.

24/9/00 Friday in Algeria
GIA (Armed Islamic Group) broke into a farmer's home at Chateau d'Eau and killed children aged nine months, one year and two years, two women, a man and an elderly man.
Near Beberessa GIA cut the throats of three men at a road block and nearby two brothers were killed when their car was set alight.

Eleven Children Killed by Algerian Islamists
5/8/00 Six children, aged 11 to 15, playing dominos at a wedding at Ouled Aiche were shot to death by GIA (Armed Islamic Group).
4/8/00 A father and 2 children were hacked to death near Medea.
12/8/00 GIA attempted to assassinate a 46 year-old professor at the University of Algiers. He received critical stomach wounds. His pregnant wife and 3 children, aged 18 months to 14 years were killed.
The GIA is fighting for an Islamic state where Allah reigns supreme.


14/8/00 Murder Trial of Islamists in Turkey
Seventeen alleged Islamic militants belonging to the Selam-Tevhid group have been charged with the murders of 22 secular journalists and liberals over the last 10 years. The victims include former Culture Minister Ahmet Taner Kislali in 1999, journalist Ugur Mumcu in 1993 both killed by car bombs, and in 1990 leftist law professor Muammer Aksoy and academic Bahriye Ucok.
The defendants are said to have links with Hizbullah, funded by Iran, which is trying to bring about an Islamic state. Earlier this year 60 bodies of Hizbullah victims were found in Turkey

And from Algeria: 230 more Deaths
After we had thought President Bouteflika's peace initiative was starting to work, the month of July has seen 230 more deaths (including GIA (Armed Islamic Group), soldiers, police and civil defense corps).
Civilian deaths:
9 July `00 Three people were killed in Keddara, 40 km E of Algiers when a bomb exploded. Two women and a twelve year-old boy had their throats cut while minding sheep in El-Marsa, W of the capital. Two 15-year-old shepherds had their throats cut near Sidi Bel Abbes, 420 km W of Algiers.
10 July `00 GIA opened fire on a car near Jijel, 260 km E of Algiers, killing two civilians and wounding 2 children. Eight farmers had their throats slashed near Tipaza, 70 km W of the capital. Two civilians had their throats cut in Oued El Abtal, 400 km W of Algiers. Three civilians were burned to death in their car near Ahmeur El-Ain, 80 km W of Algiers. Three shepherds with slit throats were found in the Tissemselt region, about 350 km W of Algiers.
15/7/00 Islamists attacked a home in Oran, 600 km W of Algiers, leaving 4 mutilated bodies.
18/7/00 Four men, three women and two children were killed at a false roadblock near Hadjout, 80 km W of the capital. Two people who went to their assistance were also killed.
The Armed Islamic Group is fighting for an Islamic state where Shariah (Islamic Law) will prevail.


4 July `00 Two Sunni Muslim Activists Receive Death Sentence in Pakistan
Ghulam Rasool and Abu Bakr members of the extremist Lashkar-e-Jangvhi group were found guilty in an anti-terrorist court in Rawalpindi of assassinating a senior police official and his driver. Lashkar-e-Janghvi is responsible for the deaths of scores of Shiite Muslims.

10 June, 2000 Death of the "Lion of Damascus".

Hafez Assad who ruled Syria for 3 decades died on Saturday. History will remember him as a secular leader who did much to improve the lot of women in his country. However his treatment of political prisoners and the destruction of Hama in 1982, with the deaths of 20,000 inhabitants, will also be remembered. See "Some Islamic History" We look forward to his son, Bashar Assad, pursuing the peace process with Israel and resolving the question of the Golan Heights.

16/6/00 Death Sentences in Turkey

Thirty three Islamists found guilty of burning to death 37 left-wing intellectuals in 1993 were sentenced to death on Friday. The group were commemorating, in a hotel in Siva, the hanging of a 16th Century poet by religious authorities. The Islamists set fire to the hotel and prevented firefighters from reaching the scene.

19/5/00 More Religious Violence in Pakistan

For years minority Shiite Muslims have been attacked by the more numerous Sunni Muslims. The former retaliated in turn. On Thursday in Karachi two gunmen on a motorcycle ambushed a car carrying 4 Sunni religious leaders, killing two, principal Maulana Mohammed Yusuf Luthyanyi and teacher Abdur Rehman, and wounding the others. The military government must crack down on religious sectarian violence. In the past innocent bystanders have been killed.

14/5/00 Killers of Kislali and Mumcu Arrested in Turkey

Recently we reported the assassination of our kindred spirit, secular academic Ahmet Taner Kislali. He had aroused the anger of fundamentalists by explaining the Turkish earthquakes as natural phenomena rather than "the will of Allah". Police have made 4 arrests and seized a large quantity of explosives and automatic weapons belonging to an outlawed Islamic group backed by Iran, the Teyhid-Selam. One, Needet Yuksel has confessed to planting the bomb on the bonnet of Kislali’s car and that the mastermind was Ferhan Ozmen.

The same group was responsible for the assassination of Ugur Mumcu another critic of political Islam who also wrote for the paper Cumhuriyet.

20/5/00 Islamic Terror Continues in Algeria

Fourteen people have been killed in the last week by GIA (Armed Islamic Group). On Wednesday three people were stopped at a road-block, tied up and burned alive in their car. On the same day a father and three children had their throats slit while the mother and 17 year-old daughter were abducted. Usually female captives are killed after the GIA has had its way with them.

4 May, 2000 GIA attacked a bus on Wednesday and set it alight. Nineteen people were killed and 26 injured. The GIA is fighting for an Islamic state where Allah reigns supreme.

18/5/00 A human rights tribunal has found 24 Indonesian soldiers and one civilian guilty of murdering 56 students and a teacher from an Islamic boarding school in June 1999. (See story and photograph of the mass grave in our archives) Free Aceh leaders point out that the highest ranking officer convicted was Capt. Anton Yuliantoro who received 8 ˝ years and say that General Wiranto and former President B.J. Habibie were responsible for the killings. The Free Aceh Movement has been fighting for 25 years for independence, a greater share of profits from its oil wells, and the right to impose Shariah on the Acehnese people. (HRAIC rejects the last demand.)

It is also time to examine his role in the "Communist coup" of 1965 which led to the downfall of President Sukarno, the killing of 500,000 progressives and the taking over of power by then General Suharto. Earlier this month, elected President Abdurrahman Wahid said he would support a judicial probe into the massacres and that he wants to lift the ban on the PKI, which was once the third largest in the world.

29/3/00 Mass Grave Found in Algeria

The bodies of about 50 victims of the GIA (Armed Islamic Group) were found in a forest in the Tiaret region, 250 km SW of the capital, Algiers. Six people were killed in a bomb attack on a tractor in Tissemsilt, 300 km W of Algiers. More than 100,000 have died in the violence since the Islamic insurgency began in 1992.

3/2/00 Islamic Threat to Central Asia

Five people were killed and 22 injured when a bomb exploded on a bus in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Later on Monday a grenade launcher was used to attack a tax center and a department store fortunately with no casualties.

Tajikistan has become a major transit country for "international terrorists" and drugs and arms smugglers from Afghanistan.

20/2/00 Violence Continues in Algeria

The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) attacked and killed a family of six shepherds including two children aged 4 and 6, near Ammi Moussa 300 km west of Algiers. They also took a 22 year-old woman and sheep. Two villages near Chlef, 220 km W of Algiers were attacked and food and clothing taken but with no casualties.

26/2/00 Six young shepherds aged from 15 to 21 were killed and mutilated near Ben Allel, 75 km west of Algiers. Three communal guards were killed at a roadblock near Chiffa, 45 km S of the capital.

25/1/00 Violence Continues in Algeria

Twelve people were killed and three injured at a road-block when GIA (Armed Islamic Group) fired on an ambulance carrying handicapped children and a vehicle with their caregivers. The attack took place near Miliana, 120 km east of Algiers.

4 Jan ‘00 In the village of El Amaria, 200 km south of Algiers GIA rebels cut the tjhroats of a 45 year-old pregnant woman, her mother, her school-teacher husband Kadri, and 2 sons.

5/1/00Six civilians were shot dead and 14 others wounded by GIA on Monday night at Haouch Germain, 60 km west of Algiers.

25/1/00 Hezbollah Murders in Turkey

So far 33 bodies have been exhumed, mainly of Kurds tortured to death and buried by Hezbollah (Party of God) activists. The finds occurred after a shoot-out between rival factions in which Hezbollah leader Huseyn Velioglu was killed. A computer in his safe house gave a hit list of 1,500 names including journalists, artists and businessmen. Police also found videotapes of people being interrogated and tortured.

29/1/00 Four Killed in Pakistani Mosque Explosion

A Sunni Muslim mosque in Malir district, Karachi was bombed on Friday, killing four and injuring more than thirty. No one has claimed responsibility but it may have been in revenge for the bombing of a Shiite mosque last month.

28/12/99 Shiite Gunman Attacks Sunni Muslim Funeral in Pakistan
Salamat Shah attacked a funeral procession killing 12 Sunnis and injuring 6 others in Sikunder Pur, NW Pakistan. They were all members of the militant group Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), "The Guardians of the Friends of the Prophet". The organization has been blamed for the deaths of hundreds of Shiite Muslims in Pakistan.

20/12/99 Algeria Says 250 Rebels Surrender
More than 250 rebels of the AIS (Islamic Salvation Army) have surrendered under the amnesty, Civic Concord Law, which expires on January 13. More than 1,000 guerillas have given themselves up since July. The amnesty only applies to those who have not killed, raped or kidnapped. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and Da'wal Djihad (DD) oppose the concord and will keep on fighting for an Islamic state. AIS is integrating 3,000 of its fighters in the pro-government militia to help against the radical groups responsible for 500 deaths since July.
22/12/99 Boulemia Fouad,27, has confessed to the assassination of FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) leader Abdelqader Hachini on Nov. 22. He and 7 others were sent by GIA to kill Hachini.

29/11/99 PAGAD Blamed for Bomb Blast in Cape Town
Militant Muslim group, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD), is blamed for planting a pipe-bomb which exploded inside St. Elmo's pizzeria, Cape Town. Forty-eight people including seven children were taken to hospital. The bombing was similar to that on the Planet Hollywood restaurant which killed 2 people. PAGAD members have been arrested for possession of explosives and a promonent PAGAD member was convicted on Friday for murdering four people.

28/11/99 Moderate Muslim Assassinated in Algeria
Algerian police have rounded up dozens of Islamic radicals for questioning about the murder of the third-in-command of FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) Abdelqader Hachini. Hachini was committed to ending the conflict in Algeria which has claimed 100,000 lives since 1992. The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) opposes the peace plan and wishes to set up an Islamic state.
21/11/99 One child was killed and three wounded when Islamic militants bombed a school bus in the village of Tamerdjit 200 km East of Algiers.
20/11/99 Fifteen people were killed and eight wounded at a GIA roadblock near Blida, 60 km south of the capital.

17/11/99 Islamists Active in Uzbekistan
Why rebel gunmen would want to kill 3 forest workers near Yangiyabad we do not know. Three policemen were killed in a separate attack. The rebels want an Islamic state

21/10/99 One of us Killed by Bomb in Turkey
Prominent secularist university lecturer and academic Ahmet Taner Kislali,60,father of three, died on Thursday when he picked up a parcel left on the roof of his car in an Ankara street.
Kislali was critical of fundamentalism and was an advocate of a secular, democratic Turkey. He had traded words with a Muslim sect which had said that the deadly earthquake in Turkey in August was divine retribution for the country's rejection of Islamic law. (See August "Left Shoe News")
No one has claimed responsibility but police suspect the outlawed IBDA-C (Great Islamic Eastern Raiders Front)

31/10/99 TNI Involvement in Beutong Ateuh Massacre Exposed Yesterday the fact finding team set up by the Aceh regional government reported its conclusions. The 51 men killed by the Indonesian army on 23 July were unarmed. More details: tni.html
HRAIC does not support the setting up of an Islamic state in Aceh but cannot condone brutality towards its citizens.

30/10/99 GIA Killings Continue in Algeria
Guerrillas from the GIA (Armed Islamic Group) attacked Tadjemat hamlet, 330 km S of Algiers and slit the throats of 12 people. They also kidnapped 2 girls.
24/10/99 GIA rebels cut the throats of three brothers, aged 6, 12 and 13, who were collecting fire-wood in a forest 225 km SW of Algiers.
21/10/99 GIA rebels slashed the throats of six shepherds and kidnapped three others and their flock. Three peasants were seriously injured by a bomb planted in a farm in Tipaza province, 70 km West of Algiers.
Twenty one rebels have been killed by government forces in the last month.and 531 have applied for amnesty which applies to rebels who have not killed, raped or kidnapped anyone. On September 17 a referendum overwhelmingly supported an end to the war although the GIA and the Da'wa wal Djihad (Muslim Mission and Holy War) opposed it.
Since 1992 the war has cost 100,000 lives.

2 Oct. '99 Sectarian Violence Continues in Pakistan
Two activists of the Shiite Muslim Tehrik-e-Jafria party were killed today by two men on a motorcycle. The night before four Sunni Muslims were gunned down outside a religious school in Karachi. Earlier in the day a Shiite doctor, vice president of the PMA in the Punjab, an assistant and a patient were gunned down in Lahore. Nine worshippers were killed when Sunni gunmen attacked a Shiite mosque in Karachi during prayers.
25/10/99 Pakistan's 10 year experiment with democracy has ended with the army's grab for power. The last military dictatorship introduced many Islamic laws. We certainly hope General Musharraf, unlike General Zia, does not try to woo the Islamic extremists.

27/9/99 Massive Vote for Peace in Algeria
Of the 85 per cent of the population who voted in the September 16 referendum, over 98 per cent voted for peace despite opposition by the GIA (Armed Islamic Group). This shows that the extremists have almost completely isolated themseves from the Algerian people by their indisciminate violence. Islamic insurgents who surrender will now receive an amnesty or reduced jail sentence except those convicted of rape, murder or planting bombs. Already 13 militants in Oran have surrendered bringing with them Kalashnikov rifles and 17 kg of explosives. Over 100,000 Algerians have died in the emergency.
24/9/99 GIA rebels slashed the throats of 5 farmers in the Attatba area, 60 km W of Algiers. 29/9/99 Another 7 people were forced out of their cars and killed at a roadblock near Berrouaghia, 70 km W of the capital.

26/9/99 Taliban Bombs Kill 27
Taliban jets killed 27 civilians, many of them children, in Taloqun, northern Afghanistan. The Taliban now rule 90 per cent of the country which they are turning into a fundamentalist Islamic state. Women have been forced out of jobs and must completely cover their faces. Girls schools and sports have been banned and television sets and videos destroyed. Public amputations for thieves and executions are carried out in stadiums.


29/8/99 Nine Die in Three Bombings in Yemen
Abu-Hamza al-Masry, head of the London-based "Supporters of Shariah" claims that the Aden_Abyan Islamic Army contacted him and claimed responsibility for bombing a supermarket in San'a, the capital of Yemen and buildings in Aden and Zinjibar. Earlier this month, an appeals court in Zinjibar upheld death sentences for an Islamic militant and one of his followers convicted of abducting 16 Western tourists - four of whom died during a botched rescue. Zein Al-Abidine al-Mihdar, head of the Aden-Abyan Islamic Army, has said that if he were executed his followers would exact revenge. They would continue to attack foreign targets as well as Yemeni officials and to work toward the establishment of an Islamic state in Yemen.

14/8/99 Five Killed Over Rival Shariah Courts in Somalia
Rival groups wanting to set up Shariah (Islamic Law) courts in Hodon, Mogadishu fought each other and police with shotguns leaving five dead. Virtually no secular judiciary remains since the ousting in 1991 of dictator Mohamed Siad Barre. Somewhere in our archives is a story of the amputation of a hand for theft in Mogadishu. Such barbaric punishments are typical of Shariah, introduced by Prophet Muhammad in the Seventh Century.

25/8/99 GIA Oppose Peace Referendum
The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) in Algeria opposes the peace referendum to be held on 16 September. On Wednesday they detonated a bomb near a bus on the road between Blida and Medea killing three civilians and wounding nine.
Last Friday. GIA rebels killed 17 people, many of them children, attending a circumcision party in Medea. The day before they slaughtered six people, including three women and a child at a fake roadblock.

12 July '99 Muslim Theologians Sentence Russian Governor to Death
Theologians from Chechnya and Dagestan ordered Muslims to carry out the death sentence against Gov. Aman Tuleyev "at the first possible opportunity". He has been accused of being baptized as an Orthodox Christian on June 25. The death penalty for apostasy ("deserting Islam") is not Qur'anic but it is Shariah (Islamic Law) as Prophet Muhammad executed a number of apostates. Tuleyev denies the report that he had been baptized and says he is not religious. Thus he is still technically an apostate as, being of Kazakh origin, he is "a member of a predominantly Muslim ethnic group" as the theologians say.

30/7/99 Military Massacre in Aceh, Indonesia
Villagers in Beutong found 31 bodies in mass graves and another 20 in a ravine. Witnesses say the men were ordinary villagers who were gathered together and marched into the jungle. Aceh is the center of a separatist group who want an Islamic state and more benefits from the oil produced there. Three hundred people have been killed in Aceh so far this year.

10 July '99 Iraqi Troops Demolish Village
The Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq said that a unit of the Republican Guards destroyed al-Masha village near Rumaitha, 240 km S of Baghdad. Most of the villagers were detained and a curfew imposed on Rumaitha. On July 4 insurgents attacked a squad of Iraqi troops and members of the ruling Baath Party in the vicinity of Rumaitha killing 40 of their number.
20/7/99 The Iraqi Communist Party's Human Rights Centre reported that "the dictatorial regime executed 58 political detainees on 14 April 1999 in the notorious Abu Ghraib prison". They listed the 58 names, 16 of whom were from Baghdad and the rest mainly from the south.

9 June '99 Iran Blamed for Bombings in Iraq
The Iranian Mujahedeen Khalq has blamed the "religious, terrorist dictatorship ruling Iran" for bombings in Baghdad aimed at them. In the latest attack seven senior members of the group were killed and 37 injured when their bus was targeted. On Saturday two bombs damaged their HQ in Baghdad. The Mujahedeen Khalq is aided by Iraq and has 30,000 members equipped with tanks, artillery and helicopter gunships and makes sorties into Iran from its 17 camps near the border. Likewise Iran hosts Iraqi opposition groups which have been blamed for assassination attempts on several Iraqi leaders including President Saddam Hussein's son, Odai.

17/6/99 Twenty Islamists Jailed in Egypt
Twenty members of al-Gamaa al-Islamiya received jail terms ranging from 5 years to life for planning an attack on the palace of President Mubarak in 1996. In 1995 Islamists fired on his car while he was visiting Ethiopia. Since 1992 when the campaign began over 1200 people have been killed. The Islamic group aims to overthrow the secular Egyptian government and replace it with a strict Islamic state.

8 June '99 Islamists Fight Each Other in Algeria
Algiers
On Sunday the AIS (Islamic Salvation Army) declared an end to its guerrilla attacks on the Algerian people in return for an amnesty deal. It vowed to turn its guns against the GIA (Armed Islamic Group) to support the government's fight against terrorism. The GIA denounced the AIS truce with the government as a sell-out. The AIS had become increasingly unhappy about GIA attacks on civilians. Then on Monday AIS attacked a GIA base in Jijel arresting its commander and several other members. The amnesty deal, the National Harmony Law, by newly elected Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika is opposed by a wide cross-section of parliament which says AIS is an enemy of democracy and the secular state.
16/6/99 Three Islamists were jailed from five years to life for the killing of 7 Italian sailors in 1994. The sailors had anchored at Djendjen to unload semolina. More than 100 foreigners have been killed in Algeria since 1993, when Muslim rebels began targeting foreigners to embarrass the government and worsen an economic crisis by frightening off investors.
27/6/99 President Bouteflika said on Sunday that 100,000 people have died in Algeria's seven year conflict with Muslim guerrillas.
5 June '99 Nineteen civilians were killed and 4 wounded by GIA rebels at Sidi Ahmed Drouni village, 300 km W of. Algiers

28/6/99 Death Sentences for Six Islamists in Uzbekistan
Six men , Kasym Zakirov, 43, Bakhrom, 29, Mukhammed Abdurakhimov, 31, Zikir Khasanov, 31, Zakhid Dekhanov, 26, and Taladbek Nuraliyev,24, were sentenced to death and 16 others jailed in Tashkent on Monday. The charges related to a series of bomb blasts in February in Tashkent which killed 16 people and injured 120 others.
President Islam Karimov is a Muslim but says that religious fanatics, "Wahabbists" a fundamentalist sect from Saudi Arabia wish to set up a strict Islamic state by force. Human rights groups in Uzbekistan say that his fears are not unfounded but the threat of fundamentalism is being used to crush not only religious groups but other opposition discontented with falling living standards in the country.

Killings Continue in Algeria
24/5/99 Ten people, including three children were killed and three injured in a GIA (Armed Islamic Group) attack on a village near Medea, 100 km S of Algiers. Pro-government vigilantes were the target.
12/5/99 Two new mass graves containing 55 bodies were found at Falloug 30 km SW of Algiers and Tlemcen 400 km W of the capital. The latter were the remains of 5 people kidnapped by the GIA.
3 May '99 Nine shepherds had their throats cut by GIA in Kasni hamlet 220 km SW of Algiers. 20/5/99 Another mass grave containing 18 civilians including women and children was found near Djelfa, 600 km SE of Algiers. Villagers say the GIA had abducted them from a wedding party. Two shepherds were killed by Islamist rebels at Moulay Slissen. Six children and one adult from Bekkar, 70 km S of Algiers, had their throats cut by Islamists.
10 May A large number of rebels have split with the GIA because of its attacks on civilians. The Da'wah wal Jihad group (Appeal and Struggle) led by Hassan Hattab are instead concentrating on ambushing government troops. Three soldiers were killed when their truck hit a mine. Twenty rebels were killed in the Tizi-Ouzu area, 90 km E of Algiers.
PARIS: Dozens of Islamic militants have been convicted in France for supplying arms to rebels in Algeria. Jail sentences of up to eight years were imposed and when completed they will be deported. Key evidence was a car loaded with assault rifles and ammunition.
31/5/99 Two dozen Islamists went on trial for a series of bombings in France between July and October 1995. Ten people were killed and over 170 injured. Many said their nationality was "Muslim" when asked.


23/5/97 Kidnapping and Assassination Attempts in Chechnya
Gunmen fired on the car of the Chechen Islamic Republic, Aslan Maskhadov as he was driving to work on Sunday. The president was unhurt but Adam Tamkayez was killed and his brother, Danilbek Tamkayev, top presidential aide, critically wounded. In March, a remote-controlled mine exploded near Maskhadov's motorcade.

5 April '99 Arrests in Uzbekistan
Thirty people involved in the bomb attacks in the capital, Tashkent in January have been arrested but the central figures remain at large. The attacks left 15 people dead and scores injured. The Muslim Wahhabi movement wants a stricter, more puritanical state in Uzbekistan. The President, Islam Karimov, is a Muslim but wishes to retain a moderate, secular state. He claims that extremist groups are misusing religion in pursuit of their political aims. 7

15/4/99 Hundred Dead in Somali Fighting
At least 100 people have been killed in clashes between militias loyal to Hussein Ali Ahmed and Muse Sudi Yalakow in Mogadishu. Somalia has had no effective government since President Mohamed Said Barre was ousted in 1991.

5 April '99 Riaz Basra Killed in Pakistan
Basra who had a reward of 5 million rupees on his head was shot dead by security forces in the Punjab. He was wanted for the attempted assassination of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in January and the killing of an Iranian official in 1990. He was the leader of the Lashkar-I-Jhangi Sunni group of militants.


13/4/99 Opposition Says Iraq Executed 236 Citizens in Basra
General Ali Hassan al-Majid, cousin of Saddam Hussein, is reported to have cracked down on opposition in southern Iraq and ordered 236 citizens killed and 52 houses destroyed.


March 1999 Islamists Continue Killing in Algeria
to protect the village against Islamists. They also abducted a young woman.
19/3/99 Ten villagers had their throats 9/3/99 Three Algerians, including a child were killed and 31 wounded when a GIA (Armed Islamic Group) bomb exploded in Khemis Meliana, 130 km from Algiers. Seventeen soldiers were killed and 20 wounded in an ambush in Bouira province, 90 km east of the capital. Such occurrences show the lie to the misinformation that the army is involved in the killings. It was the fourth such attack on troops this year.
11/3/99 Six pro-government militiamen were killed by anti-personnel mines at Tlemcen, 400 km west of Algiers. Two Islamists were killed in central Algiers when they refused to stop their stolen car.
15/3/99 GIA slashed the throat of one woman and burned to death 5 other villagers in two house fires at Sidi el Kebir hamlet, 50 km S of algiers.They were families of "patriots" - militiamen armed by the government slashed at Bordj Emir Khaled, 100 km SW of algiers.
21/10/99 Four civilians were killed at a road-block near Frenda, 220 km SW of the capital.
22/3/99 Three men had their throats cut at a roadblock near Hassi Bahbah, 230 km S of algiers. 20/3/99 Three women kidnapped by GIA at a roadblock in Ain Defla, 130 km SW of Algiers, were later found dead with their throats cut.
21/3/99 Five civilians were injured by a GIA bomb at Tebessa, 440 km E of Algiers. Security forces killed nine GIA in Jijel province (250 km E of Algiers) and in Blida (50 km S of the capital) 22/3/99
With presidential elections due on April 15, Amnesty International calls on candidates to make a firm commitment to human rights. President Liamine Zeroual, a retired general, is stepping down and Algeria may get its first civilian leader since 1965.
23/3/99 Thousands of troops backed by helicopter gunships and artillery launched a sweep across forested areas of Bouira, Lakhdaria and Bordj Menaiel killing 46 Islamists in the last three days.

9/3/99 Bombings in Uzbekistan
Uzbek President Islam Karimov says that Islamic extremists were responsible for 13 deaths and 100 injured by car bombs in February. Karimov is a Muslim who believes in a secular Uzbekistan and refuses to impose Islamic law - this has made him a target of fundamentalist islamic groups.

10 March '99 Communist Concert Bombed in Bangladesh
Two bombs exploded during a music concert attended by 5000 people killing 11 and injuring 150. The concert had been organized by the Udichi Shilpi Goshti a cultural group aligned with the Communist Party of Bangladesh. Police have arrested a number of students from the Islamic Chhatra Shibir which is a wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami political party.

25/3/99 Germany Arrests Islamic Leader
Muhammad Metin Kaplan, leader of a fundamentalist group within Hilafet Devleti ("Islamic State") has been charged with forming a terrorist organization, to wipe out critics and defectors and ordering the murder of his rival- Halil Ibrahim Sofu was shot to death in Berlin in May 1997. Kaplan's group seeks to overthrow the Turkish government and install fundamentalist rule.

Iraq's Highest Shiite Killed
The government of Iraq, which is mainly Sunni Muslim, has denied killing Mohammed Sadiq al-Sader, Grand Ayatollah. However the perception of exiles is otherwise. Also protests took place in Saddam City and Najab with several people reportedly killed by Iraqi security forces. Journalists were not allowed to visit these areas for several days and then only in the company of Information Ministry officials.

15/1/99 More Bomb Outrages in Cape Town.
The responsibility for bomb attacks in South Africa has yet to be determined violence by Muslim vigilante groups against gangsters and drug pushers in which innocent people are injured is certainly not the answer. Three militant Muslim groups with questionable tactics are PAGAD (People Against Gangsterism and Drugs), MAGO (Muslims Against Global Oppression) and MAIL (Muslims Against Illegitimate Leaders). There have even been attacks on businessmen and moderate Muslim clerics opposed to the violence.

Nor do we report ordinary crime in Muslim countries but only those which are religiously motivated. The only country which commits human rights abuses in the name of Christianity is Serbia but it is, unfortunately, common in Muslim countries.
The murder capital of the world is Lahore, Pakistan and not New York, Moscow or Palermo and much of it is directed against fellow Muslims who belong to a different sect and thus treated as "non-Muslims". Nor do we equate fundamentalism with terrorism although there is often a connection. Fundamentalism is the observance of everything to be found in the Qur'an and Sunnah and it covers a multitude of nasty behaviours.

Algeria - A Few Days in December
10 Dec 1998 GIA (Armed Islamic Group) bands attacked three villages near Tadjana, 170 km southwest of Algiers killing 81 people on their hit lists. (They singled out families with relatives in the civil defence forces.) They slashed the throats of children, cutting off the arms and legs of one of them.
Killing children does not follow the role model of the Prophet. (As in the previous article, he would not kill males who did not have pubic hair.)
They also kidnapped 20 women who in the past have been used as "temporary wives" and then killed..(Nor did the Prophet take Muslim women as concubines.)
6 Dec '98 GIA rebels attacked the hamlet of Tadjana killing 3 children, 3 women and three men.
10 Dec. '98 Digging has ceased at two wells which contained 67 bodies at Maftah, 20 km SW of Algiers. None of the victims have been identified but they are thought to have been those of women kidnapped as sex-slaves in 1996 and 1997.
8 Dec. '98 Three peasants were killed at the Bou Ismail area in Tipaza province, 60 km west of Algiers.
9 Dec. '98 Nine farm workers, mostly women and children were killed also in Tapaza province.

6 Jan. 1999 Hardline Fundamentalists Assassinate Critics in Iran
Today the Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran admitted that "rogue elements" in its own ranks had been arrested for the killings of dissidents.Majid Sharif, a translator and journalist who contributed to the now banned publication Iran-e-Farda, was found dead in a morgue in Tehran on 24 November 1998; Mohammad Moukhtari, a poet who was one of six writers questioned for trying to set up an independent writers' association called "Kanoun" was found dead on 3 December 1998 bearing marks of having been strangled; and Mohammad Ja'far Pouyandeh, an essayist and translator was found strangled on 11 December. We reported last month the murder of two other dissidents, Dariush and Parvaneh Foruhar who had been stabbed to death.
Now assassination of critics of Islam is Sunnah: the Prophet had three poets, Asma bint Marwan, Abu Afak, and Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, assassinated and another, Nadr executed for writing negatively about him,.so we must see that these latter-day assassins are punished.

15/12/98 "Irregularities" in Turkish Trial
Five of six police officers charged with killing Metin Göktepe have been temporarily released due to "procedural irregularities". Göktepe was a journalist for the far-left daily "Evrensel". Over the last ten years, twenty journalists have been killed without anyone being brought to justice for these assassinations.

8th Dec. '98 Fighting in Comoros
About 50 people have been killed in fighting between separatist groups on the Muslim island of Anjouan. The president, Foundi Abdallah Ibrahim, has escaped his second assassination attempt in a week.

November 1998
27/11/98 Two Hundred Bodies Found in Algerian Well
The GIA (Armed Islamic Group) is blamed for the deaths of 200 men, women and children of families which support the military-backed government. They had been kidnapped in the area 12 miles south-west of Algiers before being executed.
29/11/98 GIA posing as police at a roadblock killed two people near Ain Detfa.A father was killed and his son and wife seriously injured when his horse and cart struck a mine on a roadway near Chlef.
Hospital workers at Constantine were arrested for supplying medicines and transport to the GIA.Forty two people were wounded, two seriously when a roadside bomb exploded near a passing bus in the Oued Attoli area.La Nouvelle République reports that 500 Algerian Muslim rebels have moved from Afghanistan to Lebanon and are in training at Baalbeck.
13/11/98 Seventeen people including five women and eight children had their throats slit in the Ain Defla region. The GIA have a base in the forests nearby.
22/11/98 Five rebels wearing Afghan-style dresses were killed on Saturday by Algerian soldiers. They were held responsible for the recent killings in Ain Defla province.
On Friday a bomb exploded beneath a train in Saida province wounding three passengers.
4/11/98 GIA rebels stormed Boukaat Sidi Touil village and slashed six throats.Twenty one bus passengers were wounded, two critically when a bomb placed on a road near Medea exploded.
16/9/98 Amnesty International says that the Algerian government is holding 20,000 "terrorists" without charge and uses torture and extra-judicial executions. "There is a human rights crisis in the country."

22/11/98 Dissidents Murdered in Iran
Outspoken critics of the Islamic government of Iran, Darinsh Forouhar and his wife Parvaneh were found stabbed to death in their home in Tehran. They had both often criticized violations of human and political rights via Western radio programs beamed to Iran.The Forouhars often protested against the restrictions placed on their non-violent political activity by the Iranian authorities and had expressed fear about their personal safety. HRW (Human Rights Watch) had observed that their telephone was tapped and visitors to their home were monitored.

24/10/98 Pakistan a Powder Keg
Religious and political violence in Pakistan "threatens civil war" say top Shiite sources. In Karachi alone 780 people have died this year and hundreds more in Punjab province.Sunni militants are "being trained in Afghanistan" and "aided by Saudi money. In turn Sunni groups blame Iran for aiding Shiite militants.
Four civilians were killed in a cross-fire between police and separatists in the Gandoh area of Kashmir.


30/10/98 Islamists extradited to Egypt
Albania, Bulgaria and South Africa have extradited Islamic militants of the "Jihad" group held responsible for the 1995 suicide bombing which killed 16 people at Egypt's embassy in Pakistan About 1200 people have been killed in Egypt since 1992 when militants took up arms to create an Islamic state.

31/10/98 HRW Calls for Probe into Taleban Atrocities
Human Rights Watch say that Taleban soldiers went from house to house after conquering Mazar-e- Sharif in August. Some 2000 Shia civilians are reported killed. HRW also calls on the United Nations to probe a massacre in 1997 of over 2000 Taleban prisoners-of-war reportedly thrown into wells and killed with hand grenades.

10/9/98 Ethnic Cleansing by Taleban
It is reported that five thousand Hazara Afghans were massacred by the Taleban in Mazar-e-Sharif, northern Afghanistan. The Hazara who make up 15 per cent of the population are Shia and are hated by the Sunni Taleban. The Taleban are to hand over the bodies of 9 Iranian diplomats (one of ten survived by playing dead) also killed at Mazar .

Indonesia?s Killing Fields
Now that Suharto is gone, people are not as afraid to tell the story of the 1965-66 massacre of up to a million communists. It appears that Suharto himself was responsible for the murder of the seven generals and had planned in great detail to inflame the people against the leftists and President Sukarno. For example, stories that the Gerwani women (PKI, Communist Party women?s organisation) had sexually mutilated the bodies of the generals has recently been denied by Major General Moersjid who saw the bodies at that time. No less a person than Abdurahman Wahid puts the blame squarely on Suharto?s shoulders. The motives for the killings were both religious and political. The communists were seen as atheists bent on land reform ? taking land from the mullahs and giving it to the poor landless. The military provided names of people to be killed and weapons to Bansa, the military wing of Islamic Ansor. The US Embassy in Jakarta (through Robert J. Martin) provided a list of 5,000 communists to ABRI. Recent interviews show Mawardi and Idris to be quite unrepentant although many of the lesser participants appear to regret their actions.

August 1998 Mass Graves in Aceh
Suara Karya has quoted an Indonesian parliamentary fact-finding team that it had seen "thousands" of skeletons in mass graves throughout Aceh, northern Sumatra and suspected that "more than 5,000" people were missing.
Amnesty International estimates that more than 2000 people, including women and children, were killed by the military in a crackdown on a separatist rebel movement between 1989 and 1993. Many men were seized while working in the fields and their widows claim that they took no part in the insurgency. Indonesians were kept in the dark by Suharto's tight controls on the media. A detention camp in Pidie had been used to tortue and execute rebels. Former General Prabowo Subianto, the son-in-law of President Suharto, said Kopassus, his army unit, had merely been following the President's orders.

16/8/98 Abdelfattah Killed in Algeria
Troops have killed Bekati Rabah (Abdelfattah) commander of the al Ahoual (Terror) phalanx of the GIA (Armed Islamic Group). Al Ahoual has been blamed for the massacres of thousands of civilians. A week ago security forces killed another GIA commander, Hamou el Eulmi, sentenced to death in absentia in the case of cutting the throats of a father and son in front of other members of the family.
10 August '98 Nineteen members of the GIA were killed in a forest near Tiaret 220 km southwest of Algiers. This followed the killing on August 5 of 10 villagers in Tiaret. Eight other GIA were killed in the Boumerdes area, 40 km east of Algiers and Medea, 70 km south of Algiers.
31/8/ Seventeen people were killed when a GIA bomb exploded in the Bab-el-Oued market, Algiers. 25/8/98 The bodies of five teenagers were found in a cave near Algiers. Six border guards were ambushed and killed by GIA 700 km SW of Algiers. Five GIA were killed in the bush at Sidi Bel Abbes in Tlemencen, 440 km west of Algiers.
20/8/98 A bomb exploded in El Khemis killing 13 people. Seven people were killed near Khemis Miliana. On Wednesday a bomb on a railway track killed 7 people. Five people were killed in Laghouat, 400 km south of Algiers

18/7/98 Algerian Beaches Targeted
Beach-goers and bathing costumes are considered un-Islamic by the GIA (Armed Islamic Group).Six children were injured at Rais Hamidou on Friday when a bomb planted in the sand exploded, one cdhild losing both legs. On the same day seven people were wounded at Tipaza beach by three other devices.
23/7/98 The government continues to carry the offensive against the GIA. Sixty rebels were killed in the Sidi Ali Bounab forest, 90 km east of Algiers. Forty five were killed in the mountains near Chrea, 50 km south of Algiers.
19/7/98 The GIA has claimed responsibility for the death of Berber singer Lounes Matoub. "It is common knowledge that the slain Lounes Matoub was among the most stubborn enemies of religion and the Mujahideen (Holy warriors)", their statement read.

2 July '98 Fifth Anniversary of Sectarian Deaths in Turkey
Thousands of Alevi Muslims gathered in Ankara on Thursday to mourn the deaths of dozens of their members in a Sunni arson attack. The attack took place in 1993 at Sivas and 37 writers, musicians, artists and others were killed. The Alevis are a liberal Shiite sect, "heretics" because of their use of wine and dance during worship. They have a tradition of support for leftist, secular parties and are seen as a bulwark against radical Islam.

21/6/98 Killings Continue in Karachi.
Nine young men, bound, gagged and showing signs of torture were found shot on Saturday. Ten people were killed on Friday.Factional fighting in the MQM (Mutahida National Movement, whose members are Muslims from India) and sectarian violence betweenSunni and Shiite Muslims have been blamed. The MQM is a coalition partner with the ruling Pakistan Muslim League.

12 May 1998 Attempt to Kill Human Rights Activist in Turkey
Two men dressed in dark suits demanded an interview with Mr. Akin Birdal, President of the Association of Human Rights. They shot him 8 times and he is in a private hospital in Ciyigi in a critical condition.

24/4/98 Iran Accuses Iraq over Leading Cleric's assassination
Iran blames Iraq over the killing of 70 year old Sheikh Morteza Ali Mohammed Ebrahim Borujerdi, Shiite leader in the holy city of Najaf, southern Iraq. In London, the Iraqi opposition group, the Al-Khoei Foundation accused Saddam's agents for the attack, saying the Sheikh had been a senior candidate for the position of grand spiritual leader of Shi'ite Muslims worldwide.

14/4/98 In his report to the United Nations Human Rights Commission, Max van der Stoel says that over 1500 executions took place last year for political reasons. In the Iraqi "Prison Cleansing Campaign" most of those executed were those who had been sentenced to 15 or more years of detention. Relatives of those executed had to pay for the cost of the bullets to retrieve the bodies, many of which showed signs of torture.


6 April 1998 Islamists kill Two Egyptian Farmers
Two farmers from Ibshahadat village near Mallawi about 250 km south of Cairo, Moussa Shehata Youssef,36 and Fadl Zaki Ishaak,55 were killed by militants of Gama'a al-Islmiya. No motive is known and the pair were not Coptic Christians.

29/3/98 Killings Continue in Algeria
Fifty two people, including 32 children under the age of two years, were killed at Had Sahary Yaib, 240 km south of Algiers. About 15 members of GIA (Armed Islamic Group) armed with axes and knives were responsible, and they also abducted three young women. Officials are considering the right to abortion for women raped by the militants, who regard this abduction as "temporary marriage."
29/3/98 Government killed more than 50 suspected Islamic terrorists at Relizane. They had been held responsible for the mass killings of villagers in the province during Ramadan.
27/3/98 Forty seven civilians were massacred in Djelfa province and eleven in Saida province. Homes were burnt down and livestock killed.
23/3/98 Twelve GIA members have been charged with the murder of French Roman Catholic bishop at Oran in August 1996. It is claimed that the group planted the bomb which killed Monsignor Henri- Pierre Claverie and his bodyguard during a ceremony for 7 French priests also killed by Islamic militants.

28/3/98 Dissidents Executed in Iraq
The Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq claims that Saddam Hussein executed 60 Shiite activists in March. Their bodies were handed over to their families in Nassiriya province 440 km south of Baghdad.
The exiled Communist Party of Iraq claims that 200 political prisoners (their names were supplied) have been moved to Abu Ghraib prison prior to their execution. They are said to be mainly Kurds and Shiites. The population of Iraq, 22 million, is mainly Shiite but Saddam's government is mainly Sunni.

29/3/98 Taleban Jets Kill Five Civilians
Three women and two children were killed in the city of Pul-e-Kumri, northern Afghanistan when a vegetable market was bombed.

22/3/98 The Shiite Tehrik-I-Jafaria group reports that 6 members were killed by Sunnis during the Nauroz spring festival. The Sunni Supreme Council had warned Shiites not to celebrate Nauroz as it is an "un-Islamic ritual".
4/3/98 Kanwar Ahson of Karachi is fighting for his life with gunshot wounds to his chest, abdomen and spinal cord. He was attacked (the crowd was 250) for marrying 18 year-old Riffat Afridi against her parents' wishes. The young couple was charged with "illegally having sex outside of marriage" although they were able to produce the marriage license. Women's rights activists say that 500 women are in prison in Pakistan under this law.

25/2/98 More Sectarian Violence in Pakistan
Doctor Syed Jawahar Hussain Abidi , Shiite activist in Lahore, was gunned down by two men on a motor cycle. A similar killing took place yesterday of Syed Razi Abbas Naqvi Zada 60 km to the north at Gujranwala. On Saturday two Iranians, Murtaza Adeebi 50, an engineer and Habibi Zada 36, both of the construction company, Machine Sazi Arak were shot dead in Karachi. (Iran is a Shiite state but only 15 per cent of Pakistanis belong to that sect.) Sunni Muslims blame Tehran for aiding the Shiites, who in turn blame Saudi Arabia for assisting the Sunnis.)

25/2/98 Troops Go on the Offensive in Algeria
Probably stung by accusations that they were not doing enough to counter terrorism, the Algerian Army and Air Force have killed over 250 rebels of the GIA (Armed Islamic Group) since they killed 1,200 civilians during Ramadan.
24/2/98 Fifteen trucks with sixty tonnes of food, clothing, medicine and school material provided by trade unions and many other groups with support from the government are visiting Bentalha, Sidi Rais and Sidi Hamed, three towns most badly hit by GIA attacks.
20/2/98 A bomb placed on railway tracks near El Affroune, 16 km south of Algiers, killed 18 people and injured 25 others.
22/2/98 Nineteen people were killed in an ambush near Boghni, 90 km east of Algiers. Twenty seven soldiers were killed when their truck was bombed…….
26/2/98 Ten passengers were killed when a bus hit a mine near Medea, 100 km south of Algiers,…
19/2/98 A French court sentenced three men, Djamel Lounici 35, Abdel Hakim Boutrif 38 and Kamel Zahaf 40 to jail for smuggling weapons and explosives to Algeria.
15/2/98 Ten civilians killed at Sidi Amer. Seventeen people had their throats cut in the Tamesna region. On Saturday night four civilians had their throats cut in a road block near Ain el Melh and similarly three civilians near Ain Defla and last Wednesday ten civilians in western Telagh…

29/1/98 GIA Celebrates Ramadan
More than 1200 civilians were slaughtered during the holy month of Ramadan. The Algerian government rejected offers of assistance and an inquiry by the European Union. This does nothing to allay claims that it is not doing enough to combat terrorism, may even have infiltrated GIA (Armed Islamic Group) cells or, worse still, is itself implicated in these crimes against humanity. On Thursday, the Algerian Foreign Ministry defended the government against Iranian claims that it is responsible for the massacres of civilians: "The Iranian regime, having indoctrinated, trained, armed and financed terrorist groups knows better than anyone who today is committing crimes against the Algerian people".

18/11/95 Release 11 Elections in Algeria

Congratulations to the Algerian people for defying the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and going to the poll in droves (74 per cent turnout). They had been threatened with death for voting but they are tired of the civil war which has cost over 30,000 lives.

Assassinated have been journalists, government bureaucrats, pop singers and even girls who went bathing in Western costumes or who did not wish to cover their hair.

The 1995 elections show that the previous high vote for FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) was a protest against the poor state of the economy rather than a carte blanche for fundamentalism.

11 April, 1997 Iranian State Terrorism

A German court has found an Iranian and two Lebanese (Iran payrolls Hizbollah) guilty of the murders of Sadeh Sharafkandi, exiled leader of the Iranian Democratic Party of Kurdistan and three other dissidents. The assassinations took place in the Mykynos Restaurant, Berlin in 1992. Implicated were Iranian President Rasfanjani and Islamic leader Ayatollah Khameini.

Algeria - A Few Days in August

29-8-97 Up to 300 villagers of Sidi Rais shot, burnt alive or hacked to death. Pregnant women were disembowelled.

28-8-97 Eight killed by bomb in Casbah

.............Five young shepherds near Cherchell had throats cut.

.............Taxi stopped at road block near Mascara and six passengers had throats cut.

.............Family of nine (ten if unborn baby included) axed in Beni Mouali.

25 -8-97 Algerian film director, Ali Tenki among 65 civilians killed west and south of Algiers.

The people are demonstrating against the violence and a big rally is planned for 11 September.

Security forces on 20-8-97 uncovered 40 bombs in a GIA (Armed Islamic Group) factory.

GIA Leader Says Massacres to Continue

More than 500 innocent civilians have been killed in Algeria in the past month by GIA (Armed Islamic Group) bringing the total since the insurgency began to over 70,000.

30/9/97 The militants cut off the head of a baby and killed 51 other members of its extended family. According to Sunnah, even new-born infants may not be innocent: "Allah created some persons for Hell, right from when they were still in their fathers' loins". (Mishkat 84)

29/9/97 Twelve teachers at the Ain Adden school had their throats cut or were shot as horrified students looked on. Nineteen other civilians were killed in separate incidents and their bodies mutilated and burned.

28/9/97 The Algerian Army, after the murder of 200 civilians, rather belatedly attacked two GIA strongholds killing 30 militants.

26/9/97 On the positive side, Abassi Madani, leader of FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) has mellowed after 6 years in jail and has called for an end to the bloodshed. However The GIA response is: "We are that band, with God's permission, who kill and slaughter and we will remain so until the word of religion has prevailed and the word of God is raised high. Let everyone know that what we do in killing and slaughter and burning and pillaging is close to God. We inform you according to our faith and our ways: no dialogue, no truce and no reconciliation." On 31/8/97 GIA (Armed Islamic Group) leader Mahfoud Assouli said, " We do nothing more than fulfil the wishes of Allah and His Prophet. Those Algerians who drink alcohol or take drugs, homosexuals, wanton women and those who do not pray will die. If mistakes are made and innocents are killed then they will be shaheed (martyrs and go to Paradise). GIA is the only Flame of Jihad in Algeria and will get rid of all enemies of Allah from the youngest of their children to the oldest of their elderly."

GIA is losing the battle for the hearts and minds of the Algerians by its attacks on defenceless villagers. The local election results in October will undoubtedly show support for moderates. The high support for FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) in 1992 was due to the country's economic problems and not a carte blanche for fundamentalism.

While HRAIC dislikes dictatorial military governments, the secular Zeroual is much to be preferred to those wanting a theocratic Islamic state.

Algeria fights Armed Islamic Group

30 Oct Hundreds of GIA rebels, including some foreign Muslim fundamentalists were eliminated in September and October. However, human rights groups have accused the government of the extra-judicial executions of suspects.

20/10 Civilian village-guards killed 12 terrorists near the capital, Algiers.

27/10 Sixteen villagers including 9 children and a baby killed in Oued Djer. Six family members killed and mutilated near Tadmait. About 30 bodies, most of them women, were discovered in a well at Benalha.

24/10 Five people killed by a GIA bomb in Ghrira. .......

14/10 Members of two families, including women and small children killed at Souidani Boudjemma.

13/10 Forty three civilians slashed to death at a road-block near Oran.

11/10 Nine family members killed at Souagui. Boy killed by bomb in an Algiers cemetry.

9/10 Three railway workers killed by bomb crater near Draizine....

7/10 Fifteen killed at Bonayan and 22 in Dawar Awlad Bin Aissa. Thirty killed in Bouangoud and a herdsman at Tlemcen.

6/10 Ten self-defense members on a GIA list killed at Ouled Sidi Yahia.

5?10 Rebels shelled Blida garrison killing 12 civilians. Thirteen more civilians including a year-old child had throats cut at Draa T=Mar. Armed men killed 15 adults and 22 children at Ouled Benaissa. A wedding at Kharrouba was attacked with 20 young people killed (9 were beheaded).

14/10/97 Palestinians Killed for Selling Land to Jews

Farid Bashiti of Jerusalem fell victim to a fatwa against selling land to Israelis. He was not allowed a Muslim burial ceremony and had to be buried in a field.

Others similarly killed have been Ali Mahmoud Araf, 32, of Shufat, Rashad Salameh, Harbi Abu-Sara and Ahmad Odeh.

19/11/97 Witchcraft in Saudi Arabia

Abd al-Karim al-Naqshabandi, a Syrian working in Saudi Arabia was recently beheaded for witchcraft. This is in accordance with Islamic Law as Prophet Muhammad had executed a slave-girl who had used sorcery on one of his wives, Hafsah. [Hadis Malik 486:1511]

It is alleged that no defence witnesses were called and that the employer of al-Naqshabandi brought false charges against him when he refused to falsely testify against another employee.

Over 100 executions occurred in Saudi in the first nine months of the year and the per capita rate is probably the highest in the world, China notwithstanding.


3 Nov >97 Sectarian Murders in Pakistan

Over 370 people have been killed in Karachi so far this year for religious and political motives.

1 Nov Seventy five year old Shiite cleric, Syed Shamin Hasan Kazi was gunned down in his mosque. The next day, in retaliation, three Sunni clerics were shot and burnt to death while travelling in a van in Karachi.

In the Punjab, sectarian violence has claimed the lives of 140 people this year. On 20/10/97 four men of the Deobandi group were killed by the rival Brelvi group after being tortured for hours. While both are Sunni Muslims, they differ over their interpretation of the Qur=an.

14/12/97 Mass Killings in Afghanistan

United Nation investigators have discovered hundreds of bodies in wells and shallow graves in northern Afghanistan. As many as 2,000 Taliban were butchered near Shebergan while hundreds of Shiite Muslim civilians were killed by Taliban Muslims around Mazar-e-Sharif.

6 Dec '97 Sunnis and Tijanniyas Clash in Ghana

Fighting between rival Muslim sects in Tamale has led to the death of one person. A number of people were injured and property destroyed.

Some Islamic History

Ali and Husain

Ali was the cousin of the Prophet and, at the age of nine, was one of the first converts to Islam. He married Fatima and so was also son-in-law of the Prophet. When Muhammad died Ali thought that, being his closest male relative, he should be chosen as the first caliph of Islam.

After the murder of Caliph Uthman by rioters, Ali was elected as the fourth caliph. A'isha, a widow of the Prophet, did not consider that Ali was doing enough to avenge the death of Uthman-that indeed he may have had something to do with it. She raised an army of 3000, occupied Basra and killed scores of men who had risen against Uthman. A portion of Ali's army attacked A'isha and on that day, ten thousand Muslims died fighting each other. To cap it all A'isha and Ali were reconciled.

Nor did the governor of Syria, Muawia, accept Ali's authority saying that Ali sympathized with Uthman's murderers. At Siffin the two armies met and this time nearly ninety thousand Muslims were killed. A split developed in Ah's camp and twelve thousand men were disaffected. Eventually Muawia came out and openly claimed the caliphate.

A Muslim puritan sect, the Kharijites, did not believe in the power of a caliph and decided to kill both Ali and Muawia. The latter escaped with a slight wound but Ali was killed.

Ali was succeeded by his elder son, Hasan. He was easily beaten in battle by Muawia who became the sixth caliph and bestowed handsome gifts on Hasan.

Muawia came to act as an absolute monarch and groomed his son Yazid to succeed him. He had his son's major competitor poisoned. Many people who would not pledge allegiance to Yazid were killed.

Husain, Ali's younger son would not recognize Yazid as the new caliph and had to flee to Mecca. The townspeople of Kufa professed to be ready to support Husain who sent his cousin bin Aqil to the town. Bin Aqil received the warm support of eighteen thousand men and sent for Husain. In the meantime, due to threats from the governor of Kufa, this support evaporated. Bin Aqil was betrayed, had his bead cut off and his body thrown on the road. Husain sent Qais with a message to the people of Kufa but the latter was hurled to his death from the governor 5 roof.

On hearing the news from Kufa, most of Husain's retinue left him. On the 10th of Muharram, 61 AH Husain had only 32 cavalry and 40 infantry with him on the plain of Karbala, Iraq, while the enemy had four battalions. The small group fought for hours and Husain was the last to be killed. No doubt the fact that he was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad held the hand of many.

Even today, thirteen centuries later, the question of the succession of imams divides Islam. Ten percent of Muslims, the Shia, still hold that the leader should be descended from Ali. Husain is considered a martyr and Karbala (or what was left of it by Saddam Hussein) a holy city.