Jihad in the Qur'an and Sunnah
By SHEIKH ABDULLAH BIN MUHAMMAD BIN HUMAID
Praise be to Allah swt Who has ordained Al-Jihad (the holy fighting in Allah's Cause):
1. With the heart (intentions or feelings),
2. With the hand (weapons, etc.),
3. With the tongue (speeches, etc., in the Cause of Allah)
Muhammad, upon him be peace, was closer to them (believers) than their own selves. The (pagan) Arabs and Jews had formed a united front against them (Muhammad pbuh and his followers) and had put up all their efforts of enmity, standing and fighting against them... and (in fact) they shouted against them from every corner. Then, at that time Allah permitted them (Muhammad pbuh and his followers) the (Jihad) fighting but He did not make it obligatory. He said:
Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers) who are fighting them (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely Allah is Able to give them (believers) victory.
Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said:"Our Lord is Allah." (V.22:39,40).
The above Verses clearly state that He (Allah) is Able to give victory to His worshippers (the believers) without fighting, but Allah wants from His worshippers obedience with all their efforts. As in His Statement:
So when you meet (in fight... Jihad in Allah's Cause) those who
disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of
them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter
(is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom
(according to what benefits Islam), until the war lays down its burden. Thus
[you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the
disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the
Hellfire) or at least come under your protection] but if it had been Allah's
Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets
you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in
the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.
He will guide them and set right their state.
And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them (i.e. they will know their places in Paradise more than they used to know their houses in this world). (V.47:4, 5,6).
Then after that He made (Jihad) "fighting" obligatory against all those who fight you (Muslims); not against those who didn't fight you. So Allah ordered:
And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you... (V.2:I9O).
Then Allah (swt) revealed in Sarah Tauba (Bara 'a) (Repentance, IX) the order to discard (all) the obligations (covenants, etc.) and commanded the Muslims to fight against all the Mushrikun as well as against the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) if they do not embrace Islam, till they pay the Jizya (a tax levied on the non-Muslims who do not embrace Islam and are under the protection of an lslamic government) with willing submission and feel themselves subdued (as it is revealed in the Verse 9:29). So they (Muslims) were not permitted to abandon "the fighting" against them (Pagans, Jews and Christians) and to reconcile with them and to suspend hostilities against them for an unlimited period while they are strong and are able to fight against them (non Muslims).
As it is now obvious, at first "the fighting" was forbidden, then it was permitted and after that it was made obligatory- ( I ) against them who start "the fighting" against you (Muslims)... (2) and against all those who worship others along with Allah... as mentioned in Surah Al-Baqara Sl (II), Al-lmran (III) and Tauba (IX)... and other Sarah (Chapters of the Qur'an). Allah (swt) made "the fighting' (Jihad) obligatory for the Muslims and gave importance to the subject-matter of Jihad in all the Sarah (Chapters of the Qur'an) which were revealed (at Al-Madina) as in Allah's Statement:
March forth whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive [ hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah. This is better for you if you but knew. (V.9:41).
And He (Allah) said:
Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (V.2:216)
"The fighting", even though by its nature is disliked by the human soul because of the liability, of being killed, or being taken as a captive, or being injured, with the wasting of the wealth, the damaging of the industries, the destruction of the country, the spreading of fear and awe in the souls and the (possibility) of being exiled from one's homeland, Allah had made ready an immensely good reward that cannot be imagined by a human soul.
The Verses of the Qur'an and the Sunna (the Prophet's legal ways, orders etc.) have exhorted greatly for Jihad and have made quite clear its rewards, and praised greatly those who perform Jihad (the holy fighting in Allah's Cause) and explained to them various kinds of honours which they will receive from their Lord (Allah swt). This is because they-Mujahidin are Allah's troops. Allah (swt) will establish His religion (Islam), with them (Mujahidin). He will repel the might of His enemies, and with them He will protect Islam and guard the religion safely.
And it is they, (Mujahidin) who fight against the enemies of Allah in order that the worship should be all for Allah (Alone and not for any other deity) and that the Word of Allah (swt) (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt) and His religion Islam) should be superior. Allah has made them (Mujahidin) partners in reward along with all those who guard Islam with their weapons, along with their good deeds which they performed even if they sleep in their homes.
O you who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment? (V.61: 10)
That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad pbuh) and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah (swt) with your wealth and your lives... (V.61:11 )
Allah (swt) further said:
That will be better for you if you but know (V.61:11 )
i.e. Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is better for you than your staying (back at home). Regarding the reward Allah said:
(If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in Gardens of Eternity ( 'Adn Paradise)-that is indeed the great success. (V.6 1 :12).
And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love,-help from Allah (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad A, v zua p ) to the believers. (V.61: 13).
And Allah said:
Do you consider the providing of drinking water to pilgrims and the maintenance of Al-MasMid-al-Haram (at Makka) as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah? They are not equal before Allfih! And Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers). (V.9:19).
Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah-Islamic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah's Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful. (V.9:20).
Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed … (V.9:111).
So Allah (swt) has put Paradise as the price of the believers and their properties, so if they sacrifice their lives and properties for His Cause, then they deserve the prize (Paradise) and the bargain which they concluded with Him.